Most people are aware that smoking and heavy drinking are unhealthy habits, but not many realise just how much harm they can cause. Dr Stanley Chia , cardiologist at Mount Elizabeth Hospitals, explains the effects of smoking and drinking on our health. Media portrayal of smoking and alcohol use has certainly helped to perpetuate the appeal of these social habits. The importance of public awareness about the dangers of heavy smoking and drinking has never been greater. Cigarettes contain more than 4, chemical compounds and toxic chemicals that include tar, carbon monoxide, DDT, arsenic and formaldehyde. The nicotine in cigarettes, in particular, makes them highly addictive. Any amount and type of smoking is bad for your health. Besides being a notorious risk factor for lung cancer, coronary artery disease, heart attack and stroke, smoking can damage almost any organ in our body, leading to leukaemia and cancers of the kidney, pancreas, bladder, throat, mouth and uterus. It can damage the airways and air sacs of our lungs to cause chronic bronchitis and breathing difficulties. It can also raise our blood pressure and cholesterol levels, reduce bone density in women and increase the risk of infertility, preterm delivery, stillbirth and sudden infant death syndrome.
The danger of smoking
The link between cancer and smoking is undeniable. If you smoke, the most important thing you can do to reduce your risk of cancer is to stop. And decades of research and policy action have made this fact clear. But what about other risk factors for cancer? Could the well-known dangers of smoking be used to nudge people to think about alcohol as a health risk? Based on statistical analysis the researchers say that drinking a bottle of wine a week carries the same lifetime cancer risk as smoking up to 10 cigarettes a week in women and 5 in men. The study was based on the risk of someone developing any form of cancer in their lifetime. And 10 units of alcohol is equivalent to one ml bottle of wine. This means that if 1, men and 1, women each drank one bottle of wine per week, around 10 extra men and 14 extra women may develop cancer during their lifetime. They concluded this would be 5 cigarettes for men and 10 for women.
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Taxation of cigarettes and alcohol can raise revenue and reduce consumption of goods with negative external effects. Despite medical and psychological evidence linking their consumption, little previous work has investigated the significance of cross-price effects in cigarette and alcohol consumption. We use individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to investigate cigarette and alcohol consumption in the US, estimating both own and cross-price elasticities. Results suggest significant cross-price effects. Specifically, we find that higher alcohol prices decrease both alcohol consumption and smoking participation suggesting a complementarity in consumption , while higher cigarette prices tend to decrease smoking participation but increase drinking. The significance of these findings suggests that further work is warranted to better understand the social and economic relationship between cigarette and alcohol consumption. Cigarettes and Alcohol: Substitutes or Complements? Sandra L.
Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder AUD among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Data were from the aggregated through U. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4. Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking.